Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta
Special Capital Region of Jakarta (DKI Jakarta) is the capital city of Indonesia. Jakarta is the only city in Indonesia that has province-level status. Jakarta is located in the northwestern part of the island of Java. Was once known as Sunda Kelapa (before 1527), White Rose (1527 1619), Batavia / Batauia, or Jaccatra (1619-1942), Jakarta Store Betsu Shi (1942-1945) and Djakarta (1945-1972). Jakarta also has nicknames like J-Town, or more popular The Big Durian because the city is considered a comparable New York City (Big Apple) in Indonesia.
Jakarta has an area of approximately 661.52 sq km (ocean: 6977.5 km²), with a population of 10,187,595 inhabitants (2011). Jakarta metropolitan area (Greater) of about 28 million inhabitants, is the largest metropolis in Southeast Asia or second in the world.
SAs a center of business, politics, and culture, Jakarta is home to the headquarters of state-owned enterprises, private companies, and foreign companies. It is also the seat of the government agencies and the ASEAN secretariat office. Jakarta is served by two airports, namely Soekarno-Hatta and Halim Airport, as well as a sea port at Tanjung Priok.
Other forms of spelling the name of the city has since long been used. Portuguese historian João de Barros in Décadas da Asia (1553) mentions the existence of “Xacatara with another name Caravam (Karawang)”. A document (charter) from Banten (c. 1600) which reads epigraphy expert Van der Tuuk also have mentioned the term wong Jaketra, likewise Jaketra name is also mentioned in the letters Banten Sultan of Banten and sajarah (pupuh 45 and 47), as observed Hoessein Djajadiningrat. Cornelis de Houtman report in 1596 called the Prince Wijayakrama as koning van Jacatra (King of Jakarta).
In the 12th century, the port is known as a busy port pepper. Foreign vessels that come from China, Japan, South India, and the Middle East has been docked at the port carrying goods such as porcelain, coffee, silk, linen, perfume, horses, wine, and dye in exchange for spices -rempah who became a trade commodity at the time.
On October 9, 1740, riots in Batavia with the 5000 murder of Chinese people. With these riots, many Chinese people who run out of town and take the fight against the Dutch. With the completion Koningsplein (Gambir) in 1818, Batavia developing to the south. April 1, 1905 Capital of Batavia formed two municipal or gemeente, namely Gemeente Batavia and Meester Cornelis. In 1920, the Dutch built Menteng garden city, and the region into a new place for high-ranking Dutch replace Molenvliet in the north. In 1935, Batavia and Meester Cornelis (Jatinegara) have been integrated into a Jakarta Raya.
On January 1st 1926 the Dutch government passed a law to reform the system of decentralization and deconcentration wider. In Java province autonomous government was formed. Provincie West Java was the first province that was formed in Java which was inaugurated by the decree dated January 1, 1926, and enacted the Statute (Statute) 1926 No. 326, No. 1928 27 jo No. 28, 1928 No. 438, and 1932 No. 507. Batavia became one of residency in Provincie West Java as well Banten, Buitenzorg (Bogor), Priangan, and Cirebon.
In the reign of Soekarno, Jakarta undertake the construction of large projects, among others, the Bung Karno, the Istiqlal Mosque, and National Monument. At this time also Poros Merdeka-Thamrin-Sudirman was developed as a business center of the city, replacing the Merdeka-axis-Salemba Senen-Jatinegara. The first large settlements made by the private developer is Pondok Indah (PT Building Jaya) in the late 1970s in South Jakarta
The rate of population growth have been trying pressured by the governor Ali Sadikin in the early 1970s with the stated Jakarta as a “closed city” for immigrants. This policy can not walk and forgotten in the times of the next governor’s leadership. Until now, Jakarta is still wrestling with the problems caused by overcrowding, such as flooding, congestion, and lack of adequate public transportation.
In May 1998, riots in Jakarta which claimed many ethnic Chinese. MPR / DPR building occupied by students who want reform. The aftermath of this riot was the fall of President Suharto from the presidency.
Jakarta is a city with economic growth rates quite rapidly. Currently, more than 70% of state money circulating in Jakarta. Jakarta’s economy is mainly supported by trade, services, property, creative industries, and finance. Some trade centers in Jakarta, which became a pretty big turnover is the Tanah Abang area and Glodok. Both these regions respectively at the center of the textile trade and the circulation to the rest of Indonesia. Even for textile goods from Tanah Abang, many also become an export commodity. As for the financial sector, which contributes greatly to the economy of Jakarta is the banking industry and capital markets. For the capital market, in May 2013 the Indonesian Stock Exchange recorded as exchanges that provide the greatest advantage, after the Tokyo Stock Exchange. In the same month, Indonesia Stock Exchange market capitalization has reached $ 510.98 billion, the second highest in the ASEAN region.
In 2012, per capita income in Jakarta is Rp 110.46 million per year (USD 12.270). As for the upper middle class with an income of Rp 240.62 million per year (USD 26.735), reaching 20% of the population. Here also lived more than half of rich people in Indonesia with an income of at least USD 100,000 per year. Their wealth was mainly supported by the rise in share prices and property significantly. Today Jakarta is a city with a growth rate that is the highest price of luxury properties in the world, reaching 38.1%. In addition to luxury residences, Jakarta property growth was also supported by sales and rental of office space. In the period 2009-2012, the construction of skyscraper buildings (above 150 meters) in Jakarta reached 87.5%. This has put Jakarta as one of the cities with the fastest growth in the world’s skyscrapers. In 2020, the estimated number of skyscrapers in Jakarta to reach 250 units. And at that Jakarta has had the tallest building in Southeast Asia with a height of up to 638 meters (The Signature Tower).
In Jakarta, a road network and highways that serve the entire city, but the development of the number of cars with the number of paths is lame (5-10% to 4-5%).
According to data from the Jakarta Transportation Agency, listed 46 areas with 100 points prone intersection jammed in Jakarta. Definition is prone to traffic jams unstable flow, low speed and long lines. In addition to the citizens of Jakarta, congestion is also compounded by the commuters from the towns around Jakarta such as Depok, Bekasi, Tangerang and Bogor who works in Jakarta. For in the city, congestion can be seen in Jalan Sudirman, Jalan Thamrin, Jalan Rasuna Said, Jalan Satrio, and Jalan Gatot Subroto. Congestion often occurs in the morning and afternoon, which is when an hour away and home office.
To serve the mobility of the population of Jakarta, the government provides the means PPD bus. There are also city buses managed by private parties, such as Mayasari Bhakti, Metro Mini, Kopaja, and Bianglala. These buses serving routes that connect the terminals in the city, among others Pulogadung, Kampung Rambutan, Blok M, Kalideres, Grogol, Tanjung Priok, Lebak Bulus, Rawamangun, and Kampung Melayu. To transport environment, there is public transportation such as microbus and KWK, route from the terminal to the environment around the terminal. There are also motorcycles, three-wheeler, and a minibus to transport over short distances. Unlike other areas in Jakarta are using the motorcycle, in the area of Tanjung Priok and Jakarta Kota, motorcycle riders using the bicycle. Transport tricycles are still often found in a suburb of Jakarta such as in Bekasi, Tangerang and Depok.
Jakarta Provincial Government has embarked on the construction of the underground (subway) and MRT Jakarta in 2013. Subway lines Lebak Bulus to the Hotel Indonesia roundabout along 15 km will operate in 2017. Line monorail train lines are also being prepared serving Semanggi – Roxy privately funded and Brass track – Cawang – Bekasi – Soekarno Hatta financed central government. To track railway, the central government is preparing a double track on the railway track lines Manggarai Cikarang. Also, currently being constructed railway line from Manggarai to Soekarno-Hatta Airport in Cengkareng.
Since 2004, the Regional Government of DKI Jakarta has presented the public transport service known as the Busway. This service uses AC buses and bus stops are located in a special line. Currently there are twelve Transjakarta corridor which has been in operation, namely:
- Koridor 1 Blok M – Stasiun Kota
- Koridor 2 Pulogadung – Harmoni
- Koridor 3 Kalideres – Harmoni
- Koridor 4 Pulogadung – Dukuh Atas
- Koridor 5 Kampung Melayu – Ancol
- Koridor 6 Ragunan – Latuharhary – Dukuh Atas
- Koridor 7 Kampung Rambutan – Kampung Melayu
- Koridor 8 Lebak Bulus – Harmoni
- Koridor 9 Pinang Ranti – Pluit
- Koridor 10 Cililitan – Tanjung Priok
- Koridor 11 Kampung Melayu – Pulo Gebang
- Koridor 12 Pluit – Tanjung Priok
- Jalur Merah Jakarta Kota – Bogor, lewat Gambir, Manggarai, Pasar Minggu, dan Depok.
- Jalur Jingga Bogor – Jatinegara, lewat Gambir, Jakarta Kota, dan Pasar Senen
- Jalur Biru Jakarta Kota – Bekasi, lewat Gambir, Manggarai, dan Jatinegara
- Jalur Hijau Tanah Abang – Maja, lewat Kebayoran Lama dan Serpong
- Jalur Coklat Duri – Tangerang, lewat Rawa Buaya
- Jalur Pink Jakarta Kota – Pelabuhan Tanjung Priok
Waterways began to operate and be integrated in the transport macro Jakarta after the inauguration of the Mist-rubber along 1.7 kilometers by Governor Sutiyoso on June 6, 2007. These are part of the route planning Manggarai-rubber along the 3.6 kilometer. Waterways is a continuation of the operation of the transportation system Busway. To initiate Waterways, Jakarta Transportation Agency operates two ships, each with a capacity of 28 people called KM KM grouper grouper III and IV 8 knots maximum speed.
As one of the world metropolitan city, Jakarta has had supporting infrastructure such as roads, electricity, telecommunications, water, gas, fiber optics, airports, and ports. Currently the ratio of road in Jakarta reaches 6.2% of the total area.  In addition to the protocol, the economy, and the environment, Jakarta is also supported by a network of Inner Ring Road, Outer Ring Road, Highway jagorawi, and Roads Ulujami-Serpong toll. The government also plans to build the second phase of Outer Ring that surrounds the city of Soekarno Hatta Jakarta-Tangerang-Serpong-Cinere-Cimanggis-Cibitung-Tanjung Priok.
For all other cities in Java, Jakarta is connected with the Jakarta-Cikampek Toll Road that connected with the road Cipularang. Also available train service departing from the station of departure in Jakarta six. To go to the island of Sumatra, available segment Jakarta-Merak toll road followed by a crossing service from Merak to Bakauheni.
For out of the island and abroad, Jakarta has a sea port at Tanjung Priok and two airports, namely:
- Soekarno Hatta International Airport, Cengkareng, Banten, which serves as the main entrance to Indonesia. From and to Soekarno Hatta Airport, available Damri bus which deliver passengers to and from Gambir,Rawamangun, Blok M, Pasar Minggu, Kampung Rambutan, Bogor, dan Bekasi, dll
- Halim Airport which many state functions to serve airlines and domestic flights
For water supply, now Jakarta is served by two foreign companies, namely Thames Jaya (UK) for the area east of the Ciliwung, and PAM Lyonnaise Jaya (France) for the area west of Ciliwung. In 2010, the two companies are simply supplying clean water to 44% of the population of Jakarta
Based on BPS data in 2011, the population of Jakarta is 10,187,595 inhabitants. But at noon, this figure could grow over the coming workers from the satellite cities such as Bekasi, Tangerang, Bogor and Depok.
Various places of worship religions of the world can be found in Jakarta. Mosques and mosque, as a house of worship of Muslims, spread across the city, even in almost every environment. The largest mosque is the national mosque, Masjid Istiqlal, located in Gambir. A number of other important mosque is the Great Mosque of Al-Azhar in Kebayoran Baru, Masjid At-Tin in Taman Mini, and the Sunda Kelapa Mosque in Menteng.
While there is a large church in Jakarta, among others, Jakarta Cathedral Church, Church of Santa Theresia in Menteng, and the Church of St. James in Kelapa Gading for Catholics. Still in the nearby neighborhood, there is Immanuel Church building located across the Gambir Station for Protestants. In addition, there is the Church Koinonia in Jatinegara, Zion Church in Jakarta City, Christian Church Toraja in Kelapa Gading, North Jakarta.
For Hindus who live in Jakarta and surrounding areas, there are Adhitya Jaya Pura located in Rawamangun, East Jakarta, and Pura Segara in Cilincing, North Jakarta. Houses of worship, among others Vihara Buddhist Dhammacakka in Sunter Jaya, Theravada Buddhist Vihara Sasana in Kelapa Gading, and Vihara Silaparamitha in Cipinang Jaya. As for Confucians are Kelenteng Jin Yin Tek. Jakarta also has a synagogue used by Jewish foreign workers.
The Chinese have been present in Jakarta since the 17th century. They used to live clustered in areas where settlements are known as Chinatown. Chinatown or Kampong China can be found in Glodok, Pinangsia, and Jatinegara, in addition to new residential housing in the area of Kelapa Gading, Pluit and Sunter. Many Chinese people who work as entrepreneurs or merchants. Besides ethnic Chinese, ethnic Minangkabau too much to trade, including wholesale and retail trade in the traditional markets of the city.
Society of Eastern Indonesia, especially ethnic Bugis, Makassar and Ambon, concentrated in the area of Tanjung Priok. In this region too, there are still many people of Portuguese descent, as well as those who came from Luzon, Philippines.
Jakarta is located in the north of the island of Java, at the mouth of the Ciliwung, Jakarta Bay. Jakarta lies in the lowlands at an average height of 8 meters above sea level. This resulted in Jakarta is often flooded. South Jakarta is a mountainous area with high rainfall. Jakarta crossed by 13 rivers all boils down to the Bay of Jakarta. Most importantly Ciliwung river, which divides the city into two. The east and south of Jakarta is bordered by West Java province and in the west by the province of Banten.
Thousand Islands is an administrative district located in the Bay of Jakarta. About 105 islands located 45 km (28 miles) north of the city.
Jakarta has a hot air temperature and dry or tropical climates. Located in the western part of Indonesia, Jakarta experienced the peak of the rainy season in January and February with an average rainfall of 350 millimeters with an average temperature of 27 ° C. Rainfall between the months of January and early February so high, that’s when Jakarta was flooded every year, and the peak of the dry season in August with an average rainfall of 60 millimeters. In September and early October are the days were very hot in Jakata, temperatures can reach 40 ° C. . The annual average temperature ranges between 25 ° -38 ° C (77 ° -100 ° F)
|Rata-rata tertinggi °C (°F)||29.9||30.3||31.5||32.5||32.5||31.4||32.3||32.0||33.0||32.7||31.3||32.0||31.8|
|Rata-rata terendah °C (°F)||24.2||24.3||25.2||25.1||25.4||24.8||25.1||24.9||25.5||25.5||24.9||24.9||25.0|
|Presipitasi mm (inci)||384.7||309.8||100.3||257.8||133.4||83.1||30.8||34.2||29.0||33.1||175.0||84.0||1655.2|
|Rata-rata hari hujan||26||20||15||18||13||17||5||24||6||9||22||12||—|
|Sumber: World Meteorological Organisation|