Language  

Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta


 

100px-Jakarta_COA.svgSpecial Capital Region of Jakarta (DKI Jakarta) is the capital city of Indonesia. Jakarta is the only city in Indonesia that has province-level status. Jakarta is located in the northwestern part of the island of Java. Was once known as Sunda Kelapa (before 1527), White Rose (1527 1619), Batavia / Batauia, or Jaccatra (1619-1942), Jakarta Store Betsu Shi (1942-1945) and Djakarta (1945-1972). Jakarta also has nicknames like J-Town, or more popular The Big Durian because the city is considered a comparable New York City (Big Apple) in Indonesia.

Jakarta has an area of ​​approximately 661.52 sq km (ocean: 6977.5 km²), with a population of 10,187,595 inhabitants (2011). Jakarta metropolitan area (Greater) of about 28 million inhabitants, is the largest metropolis in Southeast Asia or second in the world.

SAs a center of business, politics, and culture, Jakarta is home to the headquarters of state-owned enterprises, private companies, and foreign companies. It is also the seat of the government agencies and the ASEAN secretariat office. Jakarta is served by two airports, namely Soekarno-Hatta and Halim Airport, as well as a sea port at Tanjung Priok.


  • History
  • Economis
  • Transportation
  • Infrastructure
  • Population
  • Geografi

SEJARAH

Jakarta name has been used since the Japanese occupation in 1942, to call Gemeente Batavia territory of the former Dutch East Indies government that was inaugurated in 1905. The name is considered as an abbreviation of the word Jayakarta (Dewanagari जयकृत), which is given by the people under the Demak and Cirebon Fatahillah leaders (Faletehan) after attacking and occupying port of Sunda Kelapa on June 22, 1527. The name is usually translated as “city of victory” or “town triumph”, but the true meaning is “the victory by an act or effort”.
Other forms of spelling the name of the city has since long been used. Portuguese historian João de Barros in Décadas da Asia (1553) mentions the existence of “Xacatara with another name Caravam (Karawang)”. A document (charter) from Banten (c. 1600) which reads epigraphy expert Van der Tuuk also have mentioned the term wong Jaketra, likewise Jaketra name is also mentioned in the letters Banten Sultan of Banten and sajarah (pupuh 45 and 47), as observed Hoessein Djajadiningrat. Cornelis de Houtman report in 1596 called the Prince Wijayakrama as koning van Jacatra (King of Jakarta).
Jakarta was first known as one of the port of Sunda kingdom called Sunda Kalapa, located at the river of the Ciliwung. The capital of the Kingdom of Sunda, known as Dayeuh Pakuan Padjadjaran or Padjadjaran (now Bogor) can be reached from the port of Sunda Kalapa during a two day trip. According to Portuguese sources, Sunda Kalapa is one owned by the Kingdom of Sunda port other than the port of Banten, Pontang, Cigede, Tamgara and Cimanuk. Sunda Kalapa which in this text is called Kalapa considered to harbor the most important because it can be reached from the capital of the kingdom which is called by the name Dayo (in Sundanese modern: dayeuh which means the capital) within two days. Sunda kingdom itself is a continuation of the Kingdom Tarumanagara the 5th century that this port is estimated to have been around since the 5th century and who is considered the capital Tarumanagara called Sundapura.
In the 12th century, the port is known as a busy port pepper. Foreign vessels that come from China, Japan, South India, and the Middle East has been docked at the port carrying goods such as porcelain, coffee, silk, linen, perfume, horses, wine, and dye in exchange for spices -rempah who became a trade commodity at the time.
The Portuguese were the first Europeans who came to Jakarta. In the 16th century, Surawisesa, king of Sunda ask for help Portuguese in Malacca to establish a fort in Sunda Kelapa as protection from possible attacks Cirebon that will secede from the Kingdom of Sunda. Efforts Surawisesa assistance request to the Portuguese in Malacca is immortalized by the Sundanese in rhyme story Seloka Mundinglaya Dikusumah, where Surawisesa diselokakan the title name is Mundinglaya. But before the fortification is done, Cirebon Demak assisted directly attack the port. Sundanese people call this a tragedy, because the attack membungihanguskan port city and killed many people there including the harbormaster Sunda port. Determination of the anniversary of Jakarta on June 22 by Sudiro, mayor of Jakarta, in 1956 was based on the tragedy of the occupation of the port of Sunda Kalapa by Fatahillah in 1527. Fatahillah change the name of the city to Jayakarta, which means “city of victory”. Furthermore Sunan Gunung Jati of the Sultanate of Cirebon, over the administration in the White Rose to his son that Maulana Hasanuddin who became sultan of Banten in Banten Sultanate.
The Dutch came to Jayakarta around the end of the 16th century, after a stop in Banten in 1596. Jayakarta at the beginning of the 17th century ruled by Pangeran Jayakarta, one of the relatives of the Sultanate of Banten. In 1619, the VOC led by Jan Pieterszoon Coen Jayakarta after defeating the forces occupying the Sultanate of Banten and then changed its name to Batavia. During the Dutch colonization, Batavia developed into a large and important city. (See Batavia). For the construction of the town, the Netherlands many imported slaves as workers. Most of them are from Bali, Sulawesi, Maluku, China, and the coast of Malabar, India. Some argue that it is then formed communities known as the Betawi ethnic group. At that time only the Batavia area includes the area known today as the Old City in North Jakarta. Before the arrival of the slaves, already Sundanese people who live in areas such as public Jayakarta Jatinegara tribe. While the tribes of ethnic immigrants, in the days of the Dutch kolinialisme, forming region of their respective communities. Then in Jakarta there are former territories of the community such as Chinatown, Pekojan, Kampung Melayu, Kampung Bandan, Kampung Ambon, Kampung Bali, and Manggarai.
On October 9, 1740, riots in Batavia with the 5000 murder of Chinese people. With these riots, many Chinese people who run out of town and take the fight against the Dutch. With the completion Koningsplein (Gambir) in 1818, Batavia developing to the south. April 1, 1905 Capital of Batavia formed two municipal or gemeente, namely Gemeente Batavia and Meester Cornelis. In 1920, the Dutch built Menteng garden city, and the region into a new place for high-ranking Dutch replace Molenvliet in the north. In 1935, Batavia and Meester Cornelis (Jatinegara) have been integrated into a Jakarta Raya.
On January 1st 1926 the Dutch government passed a law to reform the system of decentralization and deconcentration wider. In Java province autonomous government was formed. Provincie West Java was the first province that was formed in Java which was inaugurated by the decree dated January 1, 1926, and enacted the Statute (Statute) 1926 No. 326, No. 1928 27 jo No. 28, 1928 No. 438, and 1932 No. 507. Batavia became one of residency in Provincie West Java as well Banten, Buitenzorg (Bogor), Priangan, and Cirebon.
Occupation by Japan began in 1942 and changed the name of Batavia became Djakarta to attract the hearts of the population in World War II. The city is also the site of the Proclamation of Independence of the Republic of Indonesia on August 17, 1945 and occupied by the Dutch until the recognition of sovereignty in 1949.
Prior to 1959, Djakarta is part of West Java Province. In 1959, Djakarta City status was changed from a township under the mayor be increased to a level area (Dati I), led by the governor. Who became the first governor was Soemarno Sosroatmodjo, an army doctor. The appointment of the Governor of DKI time it is done directly by President Sukarno. In 1961, Jakarta status changed from one level regions become Special Capital Region (DKI) and guberSemenjak declared as the capital, Jakarta resident jumped very rapidly due to the manpower needs of government that almost all centered in Jakarta. Within 5 years the population doubled more than twice. Various sac settlements then developed a new middle class, such as Kebayoran Baru, Cempaka Putih, Pulo Mas, Tebet, and potty. Settlement centers are also being built independently by various ministries and institutions such as the state-owned Perum Perumnas.nurnya still held by Sumarno.

In the reign of Soekarno, Jakarta undertake the construction of large projects, among others, the Bung Karno, the Istiqlal Mosque, and National Monument. At this time also Poros Merdeka-Thamrin-Sudirman was developed as a business center of the city, replacing the Merdeka-axis-Salemba Senen-Jatinegara. The first large settlements made by the private developer is Pondok Indah (PT Building Jaya) in the late 1970s in South Jakarta
The rate of population growth have been trying pressured by the governor Ali Sadikin in the early 1970s with the stated Jakarta as a “closed city” for immigrants. This policy can not walk and forgotten in the times of the next governor’s leadership. Until now, Jakarta is still wrestling with the problems caused by overcrowding, such as flooding, congestion, and lack of adequate public transportation.
In May 1998, riots in Jakarta which claimed many ethnic Chinese. MPR / DPR building occupied by students who want reform. The aftermath of this riot was the fall of President Suharto from the presidency.

ECONOMY

Jakarta is a city with economic growth rates quite rapidly. Currently, more than 70% of state money circulating in Jakarta. Jakarta’s economy is mainly supported by trade, services, property, creative industries, and finance. Some trade centers in Jakarta, which became a pretty big turnover is the Tanah Abang area and Glodok. Both these regions respectively at the center of the textile trade and the circulation to the rest of Indonesia. Even for textile goods from Tanah Abang, many also become an export commodity. As for the financial sector, which contributes greatly to the economy of Jakarta is the banking industry and capital markets. For the capital market, in May 2013 the Indonesian Stock Exchange recorded as exchanges that provide the greatest advantage, after the Tokyo Stock Exchange. In the same month, Indonesia Stock Exchange market capitalization has reached $ 510.98 billion, the second highest in the ASEAN region.

In 2012, per capita income in Jakarta is Rp 110.46 million per year (USD 12.270). As for the upper middle class with an income of Rp 240.62 million per year (USD 26.735), reaching 20% ​​of the population. Here also lived more than half of rich people in Indonesia with an income of at least USD 100,000 per year. Their wealth was mainly supported by the rise in share prices and property significantly. Today Jakarta is a city with a growth rate that is the highest price of luxury properties in the world, reaching 38.1%. In addition to luxury residences, Jakarta property growth was also supported by sales and rental of office space. In the period 2009-2012, the construction of skyscraper buildings (above 150 meters) in Jakarta reached 87.5%. This has put Jakarta as one of the cities with the fastest growth in the world’s skyscrapers. In 2020, the estimated number of skyscrapers in Jakarta to reach 250 units. And at that Jakarta has had the tallest building in Southeast Asia with a height of up to 638 meters (The Signature Tower).

TRANSPORTATION

In Jakarta, a road network and highways that serve the entire city, but the development of the number of cars with the number of paths is lame (5-10% to 4-5%).

According to data from the Jakarta Transportation Agency, listed 46 areas with 100 points prone intersection jammed in Jakarta. Definition is prone to traffic jams unstable flow, low speed and long lines. In addition to the citizens of Jakarta, congestion is also compounded by the commuters from the towns around Jakarta such as Depok, Bekasi, Tangerang and Bogor who works in Jakarta. For in the city, congestion can be seen in Jalan Sudirman, Jalan Thamrin, Jalan Rasuna Said, Jalan Satrio, and Jalan Gatot Subroto. Congestion often occurs in the morning and afternoon, which is when an hour away and home office.

To serve the mobility of the population of Jakarta, the government provides the means PPD bus. There are also city buses managed by private parties, such as Mayasari Bhakti, Metro Mini, Kopaja, and Bianglala. These buses serving routes that connect the terminals in the city, among others Pulogadung, Kampung Rambutan, Blok M, Kalideres, Grogol, Tanjung Priok, Lebak Bulus, Rawamangun, and Kampung Melayu. To transport environment, there is public transportation such as microbus and KWK, route from the terminal to the environment around the terminal. There are also motorcycles, three-wheeler, and a minibus to transport over short distances. Unlike other areas in Jakarta are using the motorcycle, in the area of ​​Tanjung Priok and Jakarta Kota, motorcycle riders using the bicycle. Transport tricycles are still often found in a suburb of Jakarta such as in Bekasi, Tangerang and Depok.

Jakarta Provincial Government has embarked on the construction of the underground (subway) and MRT Jakarta in 2013. Subway lines Lebak Bulus to the Hotel Indonesia roundabout along 15 km will operate in 2017. Line monorail train lines are also being prepared serving Semanggi – Roxy privately funded and Brass track – Cawang – Bekasi – Soekarno Hatta financed central government. To track railway, the central government is preparing a double track on the railway track lines Manggarai Cikarang. Also, currently being constructed railway line from Manggarai to Soekarno-Hatta Airport in Cengkareng.

Since 2004, the Regional Government of DKI Jakarta has presented the public transport service known as the Busway. This service uses AC buses and bus stops are located in a special line. Currently there are twelve Transjakarta corridor which has been in operation, namely:

  • Koridor 1 Blok M – Stasiun Kota
  • Koridor 2 Pulogadung – Harmoni
  • Koridor 3 Kalideres – Harmoni
  • Koridor 4 Pulogadung – Dukuh Atas
  • Koridor 5 Kampung Melayu – Ancol
  • Koridor 6 Ragunan – Latuharhary – Dukuh Atas
  • Koridor 7 Kampung Rambutan – Kampung Melayu
  • Koridor 8 Lebak Bulus – Harmoni
  • Koridor 9 Pinang Ranti – Pluit
  • Koridor 10 Cililitan – Tanjung Priok
  • Koridor 11 Kampung Melayu – Pulo Gebang
  • Koridor 12 Pluit – Tanjung Priok
In addition to city buses, public transportation, rickshaws and buses Busway, the mainstay of public transportation in Jakarta is the electric train or commonly known as CommuterLine Jakarta. Electric train operates from morning till night, serving the community of commuters who live in around Jabodetabek. There are several electric train lines, namely:

  • Jalur Merah Jakarta Kota – Bogor, lewat Gambir, Manggarai, Pasar Minggu, dan Depok.
  • Jalur Jingga Bogor – Jatinegara, lewat Gambir, Jakarta Kota, dan Pasar Senen
  • Jalur Biru Jakarta Kota – Bekasi, lewat Gambir, Manggarai, dan Jatinegara
  • Jalur Hijau Tanah Abang – Maja, lewat Kebayoran Lama dan Serpong
  • Jalur Coklat Duri – Tangerang, lewat Rawa Buaya
  • Jalur Pink Jakarta Kota – Pelabuhan Tanjung Priok
River transport, or more popularly known as “Waterways”, is a system of alternative transportation through rivers in Jakarta, Indonesia. This transport system inaugurated by Jakarta Governor Sutiyoso on June 6, 2007. This system is part of the arrangement of the transportation system in Jakarta called Macro Transportation Pattern (PTM). In PTM noted that the direction of arrangement of the transportation system is the integration of several transport model that includes Bus Rapid Transit (BRT), Light Rapid Transit (LRT), Mass Rapid Transit (MRT), and River Transport (Waterways).
Waterways began to operate and be integrated in the transport macro Jakarta after the inauguration of the Mist-rubber along 1.7 kilometers by Governor Sutiyoso on June 6, 2007. These are part of the route planning Manggarai-rubber along the 3.6 kilometer. Waterways is a continuation of the operation of the transportation system Busway. To initiate Waterways, Jakarta Transportation Agency operates two ships, each with a capacity of 28 people called KM KM grouper grouper III and IV 8 knots maximum speed.

INFRASTRUCTURE

As one of the world metropolitan city, Jakarta has had supporting infrastructure such as roads, electricity, telecommunications, water, gas, fiber optics, airports, and ports. Currently the ratio of road in Jakarta reaches 6.2% of the total area. [23] In addition to the protocol, the economy, and the environment, Jakarta is also supported by a network of Inner Ring Road, Outer Ring Road, Highway jagorawi, and Roads Ulujami-Serpong toll. The government also plans to build the second phase of Outer Ring that surrounds the city of Soekarno Hatta Jakarta-Tangerang-Serpong-Cinere-Cimanggis-Cibitung-Tanjung Priok.
For all other cities in Java, Jakarta is connected with the Jakarta-Cikampek Toll Road that connected with the road Cipularang. Also available train service departing from the station of departure in Jakarta six. To go to the island of Sumatra, available segment Jakarta-Merak toll road followed by a crossing service from Merak to Bakauheni.
For out of the island and abroad, Jakarta has a sea port at Tanjung Priok and two airports, namely:

  • Soekarno Hatta International Airport, Cengkareng, Banten, which serves as the main entrance to Indonesia. From and to Soekarno Hatta Airport, available Damri bus which deliver passengers to and from Gambir,Rawamangun, Blok M, Pasar Minggu, Kampung Rambutan, Bogor, dan Bekasi, dll
  • Halim Airport which many state functions to serve airlines and domestic flights

For water supply, now Jakarta is served by two foreign companies, namely Thames Jaya (UK) for the area east of the Ciliwung, and PAM Lyonnaise Jaya (France) for the area west of Ciliwung. In 2010, the two companies are simply supplying clean water to 44% of the population of Jakarta

POPULATION

Based on BPS data in 2011, the population of Jakarta is 10,187,595 inhabitants. But at noon, this figure could grow over the coming workers from the satellite cities such as Bekasi, Tangerang, Bogor and Depok.

Historical population
Tahun Jumlah Penduduk ±%
1870 65.000
1875 99.100 +52.5%
1880 102.900 +3.8%
1890 105.100 +2.1%
1895 114.600 +9.0%
1901 115.900 +1.1%
1905 138.600 +19.6%
1918 234.700 +69.3%
1920 253.800 +8.1%
1925 290.400 +14.4%
1930 435.184 +49.9%
1940 533.000 +22.5%
1945 600.000 +12.6%
1950 1.733.600 +188.9%
1959 2.814.000 +62.3%
1961 2.906.533 +3.3%
1971 4.546.492 +56.4%
1980 6.503.449 +43.0%
1990 8.259.639 +27.0%
2000 8.384.853 +1.5%
2005 8.540.306 +1.9%
2010 9.607.787 +12.5%
Religion professed by the inhabitants of Jakarta vary. According to data from the city government in 2005, the composition of religious adherents in the city are Islam (84.4%), Protestant (6.2%), Catholics (5.7%), Hindus (1.2%), and Buddha (3.5%) Total Buddhists seen more as people Konghucu also included. This figure is not much different from the situation in 1980, where Muslims amounted to 84.4%, followed by Protestants (6.3%), Catholics (2.9%), Hindu and Buddhist (5.7%), and Not religion (0.3%) According to Cribb, in 1971 the adherents of Confucianism in relative terms was 1.7%. In 1980 and 2005, the census does not record the religious affiliation of the six recognized religions other than the government.
Various places of worship religions of the world can be found in Jakarta. Mosques and mosque, as a house of worship of Muslims, spread across the city, even in almost every environment. The largest mosque is the national mosque, Masjid Istiqlal, located in Gambir. A number of other important mosque is the Great Mosque of Al-Azhar in Kebayoran Baru, Masjid At-Tin in Taman Mini, and the Sunda Kelapa Mosque in Menteng.
While there is a large church in Jakarta, among others, Jakarta Cathedral Church, Church of Santa Theresia in Menteng, and the Church of St. James in Kelapa Gading for Catholics. Still in the nearby neighborhood, there is Immanuel Church building located across the Gambir Station for Protestants. In addition, there is the Church Koinonia in Jatinegara, Zion Church in Jakarta City, Christian Church Toraja in Kelapa Gading, North Jakarta.
For Hindus who live in Jakarta and surrounding areas, there are Adhitya Jaya Pura located in Rawamangun, East Jakarta, and Pura Segara in Cilincing, North Jakarta. Houses of worship, among others Vihara Buddhist Dhammacakka in Sunter Jaya, Theravada Buddhist Vihara Sasana in Kelapa Gading, and Vihara Silaparamitha in Cipinang Jaya. As for Confucians are Kelenteng Jin Yin Tek. Jakarta also has a synagogue used by Jewish foreign workers.
Based on the 2000 population census, it was noted that the Jakarta population numbered 8.3 million consisting of the Javanese as much as 35.16%, Betawi (27.65%), Sunda (15.27%), Chinese (5.53%) , Batak (3.61%), Minangkabau (3.18%), Malay (1.62%), Bugis (0.59%), Madura (0.57%), Banten (0.25%), and Banjar (0.1%) [27] The population and ethnic composition in Jakarta, always changing from year to year. Based on the 2000 population census, it was noted that there are at least seven major ethnic groups that inhabit Jakarta. The Javanese are the largest ethnic group with a population of 35.16% of the population of the city. Betawi amounted to 27.65% of the population of the city. Jakarta is quite rapid development since the early 1970s, has been widely displacing ethnic Betawi village to the outskirts of the city. In 1961, the Betawi still form the largest percentage in a suburb like Cengkareng, Kebon Jeruk, Pasar Minggu, and Pulogadung [28] The number of people in Jakarta because many Java development gaps between regions and Jakarta. So people looking for a job in Jakarta Java. This gave rise to the tradition of going home every year when Lebaran is the area in Jakarta simultaneously return to their home areas. Lebaran the largest number of Central Java, Jakarta is headed. In a detailed prediction of the number of travelers to Central Java in 2104 reached 7,893,681 people. Of that amount based on several categories, namely motorcycles pemudik 2,023,451 people, 2,136,138 people in a car, 3,426,702 people ride the bus, take the train 192 219 people, 26 836 people by boat, and 88 335 people boarded the plane. In fact, according to data from the Ministry of Transportation Indonesia shows travelers purpose of Jakarta is 61% Central Java, East Java 39% and 10% elsewhere. Judging from his profession, 28% of travelers are private sector employees, 27% self-employed, 17% civil / military / police, 10% of students / college students, housewives 9% and 9% other professions. Itemized according to the travelers revenue, 44% of income Rp. 3-5 Million, 42% of income Rp. 1-3 Million, 10% income Rp. 5-10 million, 3% income below Rp. 1 million and 1% income above Rp. 10 Million. [
The Chinese have been present in Jakarta since the 17th century. They used to live clustered in areas where settlements are known as Chinatown. Chinatown or Kampong China can be found in Glodok, Pinangsia, and Jatinegara, in addition to new residential housing in the area of ​​Kelapa Gading, Pluit and Sunter. Many Chinese people who work as entrepreneurs or merchants. Besides ethnic Chinese, ethnic Minangkabau too much to trade, including wholesale and retail trade in the traditional markets of the city.
Society of Eastern Indonesia, especially ethnic Bugis, Makassar and Ambon, concentrated in the area of ​​Tanjung Priok. In this region too, there are still many people of Portuguese descent, as well as those who came from Luzon, Philippines.

GEOGRAFI

Jakarta is located in the north of the island of Java, at the mouth of the Ciliwung, Jakarta Bay. Jakarta lies in the lowlands at an average height of 8 meters above sea level. This resulted in Jakarta is often flooded. South Jakarta is a mountainous area with high rainfall. Jakarta crossed by 13 rivers all boils down to the Bay of Jakarta. Most importantly Ciliwung river, which divides the city into two. The east and south of Jakarta is bordered by West Java province and in the west by the province of Banten.
Thousand Islands is an administrative district located in the Bay of Jakarta. About 105 islands located 45 km (28 miles) north of the city.

Jakarta has a hot air temperature and dry or tropical climates. Located in the western part of Indonesia, Jakarta experienced the peak of the rainy season in January and February with an average rainfall of 350 millimeters with an average temperature of 27 ° C. Rainfall between the months of January and early February so high, that’s when Jakarta was flooded every year, and the peak of the dry season in August with an average rainfall of 60 millimeters. In September and early October are the days were very hot in Jakata, temperatures can reach 40 ° C. [34]. The annual average temperature ranges between 25 ° -38 ° C (77 ° -100 ° F)

Jan Feb Mar Apr Mei Jun Jul Agt Sep Okt Nov Des Tahun
Rata-rata tertinggi °C (°F) 29.9 30.3 31.5 32.5 32.5 31.4 32.3 32.0 33.0 32.7 31.3 32.0 31.8
Rata-rata terendah °C (°F) 24.2 24.3 25.2 25.1 25.4 24.8 25.1 24.9 25.5 25.5 24.9 24.9 25.0
Presipitasi mm (inci) 384.7 309.8 100.3 257.8 133.4 83.1 30.8 34.2 29.0 33.1 175.0 84.0 1655.2
Rata-rata hari hujan 26 20 15 18 13 17 5 24 6 9 22 12
Sumber: World Meteorological Organisation